Why Is Methylation Important Anyway? Gene Regulation.

MTHFR is the rate-limiting enzyme in the methylation cycle, so the whole cycle turns into a bottle-neck at this point very easily. The methylation cycle is something we’ll talk about in greater detail later on because methylation matters. At its most basic it converts homocysteine, which is inflammatory, into methionine and ultimately SAMe. SAMe is the universal methyl donor and is necessary for almost all methylation reactions.

One simple way to illustrate the importance of methylation is to talk about gene expression. The processes in your body are essentially run by your genes. In order to turn on or off certain genes, they must be methylated. If we’re talking about the gene function of apoptosis or programmed cell death, then you really want it to be working when it should be.

Apoptosis is one of the ways your body protects itself from damage. When the gene is on (or unmethylated), the cell will self-destruct if it gets damaged. That is a good thing. If it is off (or methylated), then the cell will continue to replicate out of control even when it’s damaged. We have a word for that – it’s cancer. This could be one reason why MTHFR polymorphisms have been linked to so many different types of cancer – because your body just can’t methylate or unmethylate properly.

A methylated gene is inactive, while an unmethylated gene is active.

Outside of the methylation of genes, you also have to methylate some toxins in order to eliminate them, which means people with MTHFR mutations have differences in the way they process things like alcohol, formaldehyde, certain pharmaceutical drugs, hormones, and many other things. Methylation is also crucial when you’re building neurotransmitters like serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.

Perhaps now it is easier to see why the internet is abuzz with news of MTHFR. A lot of this information is incredibly beneficial and helpful and accurate and some of it is a little bit crazy-making. The echo chamber of the internet does tend to amplify noise.

Why is Methylation Important? Methylation Matters For…

  • Gene Expression
  • Toxin Elimination
  • Hormone Balance (because hormones get detoxed too)
  • Neurotransmitter Formation.

That pretty much sums up why MTHFR matters so much and why methylation is important – because those four things, combined with nutrition, are literally the foundations of a healthy human. We’ll talk about the last three in seperate topics, but today I want to focus on gene expression.

What IS Methylation? Really?

Methylation is so anti-climactic when you really get down to the nitty-gritty. It’s the addition of a methyl group to whatever you’re methylating. That begs the question what is a methyl group?

The Demented, three-eared Mickey Mouse of Methylation

Um… What Am I Looking AT?

Outside of a mutant mouse head, it’s actually the chemical structure of a methyl group. One big carbon and three hydrogens bonded to it. This methyl group is the functional part of 5, L-methyltetrahydrofolate, or 5, L-MTHF, which is the valuable thing that you get out of the magic chair after the less valuable thing (folic acid) sits down. If this is all gibberish right now, read this post here or listen to the podcast from the beginning.

The mutant mouse, with labels. It’s mutant Mickey for us mutants.

If you’d like a fancier, more chemistry-looking version, it’s here. This is the entire molecule of 5, L-methyltetrahydrofolate, courtesy of PubChem, with the methyl group circled.

The Mutant Mouse Head is Causing All This Fuss?

Yup.

If you picture your body like a vast, complex lego structure that moves little lego pieces around to get things done, then the mutant mouse head methyl group is one of the foundational pieces that moves around all over the place. It’s a simple on/off switch for genes, but as it happens, being able to turn genes on and off is crucial.

Why Do We Need To Turn Genes On And Off?

We have the tendency to think of our genes like a recipe out of a recipe book. The directions to follow to build (or maybe to bake) a human. This is both accurate and not complete. Your genes are the recipe to build you, but they’re filled with stretches of information that has come from outside of you, like from viruses, or information that isn’t directly used to build anything. There are also lots of bits that we don’t fully understand.

45% of your genome is composed of transposable or viral DNA. Transposable elements are called “jumping genes” and are not fully understood. They do contribute to mutations as well as a number of diseases including hemophilia, severe combined immunodeficiency, porphyria, muscular dystrophy, and Alzheimer’s disease. Viral DNA is literally leftover from viruses, and so methylating these elements well allows your body to silence them. If you aren’t methylating properly, then these genes can start to express, causing genetic errors, and potentially disease.

Some of the most critical DNA methylation happened during embryonic development, well before you were born. There is also ongoing methylation that happens as cells divide and it is especially relevant within brain cells. We don’t know a lot about it, but we do know this:

  • Methylation within brain cells can be altered by drugs like cocaine, stress, and seizures.
  • Childhood stress or abuse has a carry-over to the way adult brains methylate their DNA
  • DNA methylation changes are associated with, among other things, major psychosis.
  • Altered DNA methylation in the brain is linked to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
  • DNA methylation is especially crucial when you’re making babies. Human eggs, sperm, and ultimately the embryos that they produce are all new cells, meaning that lots of DNA needs to reproduce (and methylate) for this to work out.

Can We Actually Impact This By Optimizing Methylation?

According to sperm studies, we can. Sperm seems like a bit of a random thing to analyze, but the fact is; men make sperm fresh daily. It’s a great way to measure current activity vs. what happened during growth and development.

This study, published in Human Molecular Genetics, of infertile men with a variety of MTHFR statuses (wild type, homozygous or heterozygous for C677T polymorphisms) shows high-dose folic acid changes sperm DNA methylation across the genome.

This study provides evidence that high-dose folic acid supplementation leads to genome-wide alterations in sperm DNA methylation…Homozygosity for the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was demonstrated as a factor that can modify the response to high-dose folic acid supplementation.

Aarabi M, San Gabriel MC, Chan D, et al. High-dose folic acid supplementation alters the human sperm methylome and is influenced by the MTHFR C677T polymorphism. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24(22):6301-6313. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddv338

While I’d love to see the same study repeated with a more bioavailable form of folate than folic acid, this is still great data. I take it to mean that we can influence the methylation of our DNA by optimizing our methylation cycles. That is a really big deal.

Next week we’ll talk about methylation and detoxification because when we’re talking about optimizing methylation, you have to understand why “detoxing” and also toxin avoidance are so important for MTHFR mutants.

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Who Should Care About MTHFR Mutation?

On the internets, it seems like everyone cares about MTHFR right now, but honestly, it isn’t necessarily important for everyone. Not even for everyone with a known mutation.

Just having a polymorphism is not a cause for panic. Having an MTHFR mutation, even one that is considered significant will never have any symptoms, signs, or health risks from the polymorphism. Just having the gene doesn’t mean anything at all in terms of supplements you should take, things you should do, or really anything else. In fact, over supplementing can be as harmful to your health as under supplementing.

This girl thinks you should care about MTHFR mutations.

Two Main Factors Make MTHFR Matter

  1. Your circumstances
  2. Your symptoms

Let’s review what MTHFR might do, and then we’ll talk more about circumstances and symptoms.

Possible Health Consequences of the MTHFR mutations

MTHFR mutations have been implicated in at least one research study in:

  • Midline Abnormalities: neural tube defects, anencephaly, spina bifida, cleft palate, cleft lip, and facial asymmetries.
  • Cancer: including breast, lung, brain, stomach, head and neck, and kidney.
  • Cardiac disease: including thrombosis (increased tendency to clot), deep vein thrombosis, high homocysteine levels, pre-eclampsia (high blood pressure in and around pregnancy), vascular dementia.
  • Fertility issues: including miscarriages or multiple pregnancy loss, low sperm count, history of children with birth defects.
  • Neurological issues: including migraines, autism, Alzheimer’s dementia.
  • Mood and Psychological issues: including anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive traits or tendencies, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Also, reduced reactions to certain medications like SSRIs for depression, and increased tendency toward addictions.
  • Abnormal Reactions to Medications and Therapies – including methotrexate, FOLFOX (a combination chemotherapeutic agent), SSRI medications for depression, some vitamins including folic acid, methyl-B12, betaine, and others.

When Should You Be Concerned?

This is simple. These are the circumstances that matter:

  • Fertility and Pregnancy – if you suspect you or your partner might have an MTHFR issue and you’re considering having a baby, it matters to know so you can get your health right before you build a baby.
  • Treatments for Depression and Anxiety aren’t Working – this is a strong indicator that there is something underlying the issue that isn’t being addressed, and none of the medications out there manage MTHFR issues.
  • You Have a Strong Family History of Early Cardiac Death – it might not be related to MTHFR, but if it is then knowing your MTHFR status gives you something you can work on, instead of waiting for the ax to fall.
  • You Have Three Known Bad Copies of MTHFR – this is three compromised copies of significant MTHFR SNPs (C677T and A1298C) out of four.

Who Should Care about MTHFR Polymorphisms?

These are the symptoms that matter. If you or your genetically related family members have more than three of the following, then your life might get better by addressing your methylation, whether you know about your MTHFR or not.

  • Anxiety
  • Overachieving tendencies
  • Perfectionism
  • Obsessive thoughts
  • Insomnia
  • Cleft lip or cleft palate
  • Spina bifida
  • Abnormal or unexplained clotting
  • Bad reaction to birth control pills
  • Alcohol intolerance
  • Schizophrenia
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Repeat miscarriages
  • Unexplained low sperm count
  • Alzheimer’s dementia
  • Addictions
  • High homocysteine levels
  • Food or chemical sensitivities
  • Intense competitive drive
  • Serum folic acid tests is abnormally high or abnormally low
  • “New car smell” gives you a headache or other symptoms.
  • Taking B vitamins sometimes makes you feel depressed

Who Should Not Be Worried About MTHFR Polymorphisms?

  1. People who know they have no bad copies.
  2. People who know they have one bad copy but have no related symptoms or family histories.
  3. People who don’t know their genetic profile who also don’t have related symptoms or family histories.

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MTHFR Testing and Results – What Does This Mean?

Not everyone who suspects they might have a mutation needs to test. Also, for some poeple with health-related anxiety, testing might actually increase anxiety without giving you positive benefits.

You can boost your nutritional status and your methylated folate without testing, and essentially act as though you have an MTHFR mutation, know you’re doing everything possible to mitigate symptoms and risks, without actually knowing your genes. If you’re ready to get started on that, then check out our Start Here for MTHFR page.

You can boost your nutritional status and optimize your methylation without testing for MTHFR. The only people who really need testing are people who suspect MTHFR issues who are trying to have a baby, and people with treatment-resistant anxiety or depression.

– Amy Neuzil, tohealthwiththat.com

In some circumstances, your doctor will order testing, but it is usually done outside of your insured health care providers, so the bottom line here is, is it worth it to pay for this?

When Will My Doctor Order MTHFR Testing?

Typically, doctors do not test for this because technically there isn’t an approved treatment, which is inconvenient. There are a few exceptions to that rule:

  • Situations involving abnormal clotting without documented causal diagnoses, although the American College of Medical Genetics is now discouraging this.
  • Fertility situations involving repeat miscarriages, repeat late-term miscarriages, repeat stillbirths, or neural tube defects such as spina bifida.
  • In some treatment situations because MTHFR can cause differences in the way people react to certain pharmaceutical agents. Notably, the most commonly used drug for rheumatoid arthritis, which is methotrexate, and the chemotherapeutic agent FOLFOX, which is a combination of Fluorouracil (FU) and oxaliplatin.
  • In some cases of high homocysteine levels, especially with a family history of early heart disease.

Some doctors will also order testing if a patient requests it, but many will not because typically it is outside of their usual scope of practice and they would have a hard time justifying it to insurance.

When Is It Worth Paying for MTHFR Testing?

Since testing is expensive and supplementation for suspected MTHFR issues isn’t, it doesn’t always make sense for people to test. Here are some situations in which you might want to consider it:

  • Fertility – If you are trying to get pregnant and you and/or your partner have either multiple personal or family history factors that are suspicious for MTHFR, you’ve had repeat miscarriages, a previous baby with a neural tube defect, or some combination of these.
  • Treatment-resistant anxiety or depression – if you’ve tried everything your doctor has given you and haven’t seen good results, especially if there is similar anxiety or depression in genetically related family members.
  • Geekery – because you geek out on information and you just like to know.

How Can I Test for MTHFR?

There are a number of tests that you can order for yourself at home.

  • 23andme: By far the best for general geekery, this test is for your genetics as a whole and also has ancestry information, health reports and heaps of random, but fun information like how likely you are to get bitten by mosquitoes relative to the people around you, and what percentage of your DNA came from Neanderthals. The cost today is $199 USD and $117 of that can be paid by an FSA or HSA if you’re in the U.S. This test doesn’t give MTHFR results directly, so you have to download your data and run it through a processor. There are bunches of different processors, but the one I like best is from Genetic Genie here. They do ask for a small donation.
  • MTHFR doctors: This is a simple C677T and A1298C test for $129 USD. You can also add a related gene, called COMT.

Again, use your best judgement if you’re exploring testing. For some people, like myself, who thrive on information, testing is a boon. For others, it just adds to the anxiety burden. Remember, you can address these issues without knowing for sure whether or not you have them.

I Tested, I Got My Results, And They’re Gibberish! Now What?

Right – so reading results isn’t always easy. First, if you opt for the 23andme option, you won’t directly see MTHFR results listed. You do have to run them through some kind of a processor, like genetic genie (their “Methylation Profile”), in order to see MTHFR. Here’s an example:

This is a sample of what a Genetic Genie Methylation profile looks like. Also, part of the reason why MTHFR testing can be a little bit anxiety-inducing.

I love the way Genetic Genie uses the stoplight-type coding to give you a quick idea of what is going on. Remember for each gene, you have two copies. One from your mom and one from your dad. Results are reported in a positive or negative (+ or -), backslash, positive or negative (+ or -) format. Here’s the code:

This is the results from Genetic Genie, who use the helpful color coding. Other companies will use the positive and negative symbols the same way.

My Doctor Gave Me Results in Words? I’m Stumped!

The words around this can be really confusing. Here’s the breakdown:

Hetero = Different, so heterozygous means one good and one bad copy.

Homo = Same, so homozygous means two bad copies because nobody is concerned about the good ones.

Wild type = the typical version of this gene, meaning no bad copies.

The MTHFR stoplight, with the confusing terminology to go with it.

Now, when you get your results, you will know what all of those infuriating little plus and minus symbols mean. Also, you’ll notice that the methylation panel shown above tests a third MTHFR polymorphism, called MTHFR 03 P39P. It isn’t one I discuss at length because so far, the research doesn’t show any significant compromise for polymorphisms, nor does it show any significant health correlations.

Fun Genetic Fact Unrelated to MTHFR

According to this fascinating article on kqed.org, the DNA packed into your body could stretch to the sun and back, 61 times.

  • Each cell has approx. 6 feet of DNA spooled up inside of it.
  • Each human has, conservatively 10 trillion cells.
  • If you do the math, that means 60 billion feet or roughly 10 billion miles of DNA inside of each and every person.
  • The sun is 93 million miles from earth.
  • Your DNA could stretch there and back roughly 61 times.
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Health Problems Linked to MTHFR mutations

Mutation Sounds So Serious and Certain – Can I Change This?

I use the term “mutations” or “mutant” mostly because I like them. MUTANT sounds so very X-men and god knows I’m a sci-fi geek. Technically, the correct term is “polymorphisms,” which is less dramatic and doesn’t imply eyeball laser beams. Polymorphisms are simply small differences – one letter substitutions – in a gene. SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, pronounced “snip”) are part of the wonderful and astounding variability of human genetics.

SNPs or single nucleotide polymorphisms are essentially a letter substitution in your genetic story. Like the difference between “Tom is tall” and “Tom is fall”. This is why there are health problems associated with MTHFR mutations.

According to the National Institute of Health, SNPs occur in our DNA almost once per 1,000 nucleotides. Since we have over 3 billion nucleotides (or base pairs) in the human genome, this means the average person has somewhere in the neighborhood of 4-5 million SNPs. That’s a LOT of “mutations.”

The vast majority of SNPs don’t have any impact at all, but as we discussed here, some do. I am, of course, referring to the magic chair that is the MTHFR enzyme.

Health Problems Are Linked to some MTHFR SNPs Because They Change the “Magic Chair.”

If you have no idea what I’m talking about, check out last week’s post here. The basic idea is that the MTHFR polymorphisms C677T and A1298C are actually consequential because they change the shape, and therefore the function, of the MTHFR enzyme in one of the most important chemical pathways in our body, the methylation pathway.

MTHFR mutations that matter are A1298C and C677T

Quick and Dirty List of Health Problems Linked to MTHFR

These health issues have been linked to MTHFR in at least one high-quality study (a great database of relevant studies is here for C677T and here for A1298C):

  • Midline Abnormalities: neural tube defects, anencephaly, spina bifida, cleft palate, cleft lip, tongue-tie, facial asymmetries.
  • Cancer: including breast, lung, brain, stomach, head and neck, thyroid, bladder, leukemia, and kidney.
  • Cardiac disease: including thrombosis (increased tendency to clot), deep vein thrombosis, high homocysteine levels, pre-eclampsia (high blood pressure in and around pregnancy), vascular dementia, glaucoma, heart murmurs, stroke, pulmonary embolism.
  • Fertility issues: including miscarriages or multiple pregnancy loss, placental abruption, low sperm count, history of children with birth defects.
  • Neurological issues: including migraines, autism, ADD/ADHD, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s dementia.
  • Mood and Psychological issues: including anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive traits or tendencies, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Also, reduced reactions to certain medications like SSRIs for depression, and increased tendency toward addictions.
  • Miscellaneous Conditions: including chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, and numerous autoimmune disorders.

Symptoms That Could Be Linked to MTHFR

Outside of the slightly scary list of diagnosable illnesses and health problems linked to MTHFR, there are also a number of symptoms that are highly associated, but don’t really warrant a diagnosis (at least not until they reach an unmanageable level). These include:

  • Brain fog
  • Irritability
  • Obsessiveness
  • Workaholism
  • Sleep Issues
  • PMS
  • Difficult menopause
  • Food sensitivities
  • Chemical sensitivities
  • High levels of seasonal allergies
  • Attention issues
  • Anger and aggression
  • Gallbladder sludge and stones
  • Heart racing
  • Depression
  • Edginess
  • Headaches or migraines
  • Moodiness
  • Joint and muscle aches
  • Itching skin
  • Obesity or easy weight gain
  • Carb and sugar cravings
  • Sweating
  • Feeling “not right”
  • Addictive tendencies

Does Having MTHFR Mutations Mean I Have These Issues?

Nope. Just like having these issues doesn’t mean you have an MTHFR mutation.

So… What Does It Mean?

It means if you have any of these issues (which, honestly, most people do have at least one), then managing your MTHFR and methylation cycle in a proactive way can help you feel better, reduce your symptoms, reduce sensitivities, and hopefully prevent MTHFR-related disease in the long-term.

What IS This Witchcraft?

It’s called “epigenetics” and it is a field that has emerged in the last couple of decades as we learned how many genes really are actionable. Epigenetics is the study of the way diet, lifestyle, nutritional status, drug use, chemical exposure, self-care, and external factors influence the expression of your genes.

This video explains epigenenetics and also gives a bonus introduction to why the methylation pathway is so important to gene expression (do you see all those methyl groups?!?)

Help! I’m Drowning in MTHFR Doom!!

It can feel a little bit overwhelming – especially if you’re like me and can listen to the giant list of symptoms and find more than five that match up with issues you have in your own life. The good news is that YOU CAN TAKE CONTROL. You hav e the power, thanks to epigenetics, to change your state of health and the severity of these symptoms. Also, here’s some great news:

MTHFR Superpower – Speed and Strength!

It’s no eyeball laser beams, but it’s a start. It has been suggested that DNA undermethylation in MTHFR folks induces muscle growth. A recent study of Russian and Polish athletes found an athletic advantage in sprint-strength type activities for the A1298C polymorphs. Mutants, Unite!

Next week we’ll talk about MTHFR testing options, what the results actually mean. and who should test? Subscribe, so you don’t miss any episodes and pass it on to your grumpy, obsessive, workaholic friends because maybe they’re mutants too…

Enter Your Email Below or To The Side For A Free Downloadable .pdf of this and MUCH more MTHFR info!

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What is MTHFR in Simple Terms Anyone Can Understand?

Sure, you’ve heard about MTHFR on the internet, but every link you click leads to complete and utter gibberish. Yeah – I’ve been there. Chances are, I’ve written some of that gibberish. Sorry folks! So here is the simplest, easiest version of the MTHFR story and also, why it matters so much to me.

MTHFR is the name of a gene, which is like a long word in the language in which your body is written. This gene tells your body how to make the enzyme of the same name. Enzymes are essentially magic seats that turn one thing into a more valuable thing. In this case, the magic chair turns a form of folic acid into 5-LMTHF which is the active form that your body uses for everything.

MTHFR in the simplest terms possible – it’s a magic chair.

MTHFR Looks Simple. What Could Go Wrong?

Have you ever sat down in a chair that had a big lump right where your seat wants to be? Well, so has folate. Sometimes when your body copies the long word of a gene, it gets a letter wrong. Usually, that doesn’t matter so much but occasionally, it does. In the case of MTHFR mutations, the ones that matter actually change the shape of the chair.

MTHFR mutations that matter are A1298C and C677T

In Short, MTHFR Mutations Mean A Lumpy Magic Chair.

If your folate can’t sit in the chair very easily, then it is much slower for your body to get any of the party guy, active folate. There’s a long line to get into the chair, but everyone has to wait.

The MTHFR Bottleneck

So Again: What Is MTHFR In Simple Terms?

MTHFR, when you think of it like this, is kind of a glorified folate deficiency, but with plenty of dull boring old folate hanging around. The dull, boring folate just can’t get any time in the chair to turn into party-guy active folate. You’ll notice the absence of crowns and confetti in the above pictures.

Does It Matter That You Can’t Make Party-Guy Active Folate?

The short answer is that it does. We all need active folate for lots of things, including :

  • Gene expression – this is how you turn on or off the genes for other important things, like the gene that kills off cells that could become cancerous.
  • Toxin elimination – your body needs to clean its house regularly and it needs active folate to do it.
  • Neurotransmitter production – to make your serotonin, dopamine, and the other molecules that keep you happy, your body needs active folate.
  • Building babies – if you happen to be making a baby, you need lots of active folates to do it, or there could be problems with the pregnancy or the baby.

Do MTHFR Mutants Make ANY Active Folate?

Yes – thank goodness we do. There are a number of different mutations (we’ll get into that later), and each one has a different impact on how well the magic chair works. But EVERY MTHFR mutant makes some active folate, or they wouldn’t be living.

You Can’t Change Your Genes, So Why Talk About MTHFR?

The BEST thing about the MTHFR mutation is that it’s actionable. With our current technology we can’t change this gene, but by taking simple steps with nutrition, supplementation or prescriptions, and lifestyle you can change the way it affects your health. That is why we’re talking about it – because you have the MTHFR mutation, you have the power to do have a huge impact on your own health.

The BEST thing about the MTHFR mutation is that it’s actionable. By taking simple steps with nutrition, supplementation, and lifestyle you can change the way it affects your health.

– Amy Nuezil, tohealthwiththat.com

Why Does MTHFR Mutation Matter To Me? (Amy – the author)

I’m a mutant too. MTHFR has impacted me in so many ways. MTHFR certainly has had an impact on my resting mental health, my personality, my ability to have babies, and the way I look – I have a facial asymmetry that is likely linked to MTHFR. It also changes some of the conditions that I have to be concerned about in the future – like Alzheimer’s dementia. We’ll talk about all of this in much greater detail in future episodes, but for now, thanks for listening and subscribe if you want to know more. Next week we’ll talk about some of the health consequences that are linked to the MTHFR mutation. Also, for show notes and juvenile drawings of the magic chair, visit me at to health with that dot com. If you happen to have an MTHFR question, you can leave me a message by clicking the link in the show notes.

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THWT! Trailer, and a bonus P.S.A. about Covid-19, from my four-year-old daughter, Sabrina.

Hello, I’m delighted to welcome you to the To Health With That! podcast where we’ll break one BIG health topic, like hypertension, type II diabetes, or this season’t choice – MTHFR mutation, into small bite-sized pieces of ten minutes or less. I’m your host, Naturopathic Doctor Amy Neuzil.

In Season One, we’ll focus on the MTHFR mutation– a topic that is near and dear to my heart. But you, dear listeners, will choose the topics for Season Two and beyond. If you know you have questions about the MTHFR mutation and want me to answer them in the podcast and also play your lovely voices on the air, then go here and click the +MESSAGE button under the logo. Or, you can email me at thwtpodcast at gmail.com (I’m writing it like that so that I don’t get approximately one million spam emails every 24 hours.) The first episode will air on June 21, just in time for father’s day. Not that it’s so father’s day relevant.

To Health with That! Naturally Healthy In No Time.

P.S.A. On Coronavirus from my 4-year-old daughter, Sabrina.

It’s Sabrina here. I’m Sabrina. I’m talking for the Coronavarirus, but I’m not sure if you can go out. It’s not safe to go out without a mask because if you make one that’s okay and if you buy one that’s okay. But, if you don’t have one and you can’t buy one and you can’t make one, that’s not good–you can’t go to the store. Bye! I’m Sabrina.

This is Sabrina, with a recently rescued chipmunk (rescued from the jaws of our Boxer/Lab, Tiki, no less.
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